A 360 Degree View of the Entire Netflix Stack

This is a guest repost by Chris Ueland, creator of Scale Scale, with a creative high level view of the Netflix stack.

As we research and dig deeper into scaling, we keep running into Netflix. They are very public with their stories. This post is a round up that we put together with Bryan’s help. We collected info from all over the internet. If you’d like to reach out with more info, we’ll append this post. Otherwise, please enjoy!

–Chris / ScaleScale / MaxCDN

A look at what we think is interesting about how Netflix Scales

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Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For November 6th, 2015

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Cool geneology of Relational Database Management Systems.

  • 9,000: Artifacts Uncovered in California Desert; 400 Million: LinkedIn members; 100: CEOs have more retirement assets than 41% of American families; $160B: worth of AWS; 12,000: potential age of oldest oral history; fungi: world's largest miners 

  • Quotable Quotes:
    • @jaykreps: Someone tell @TheEconomist that people claiming you can build Facebook on top of a p2p blockchain are totally high.
    • Larry Page: I think my job is to create a scale that we haven't quite seen from other companies. How we invest all that capital, and so on.
    • Tiquor: I like how one of the oldest concepts in programming, the ifdef, has now become (if you read the press) a "revolutionary idea" created by Facebook and apparently the core of a company's business. I'm only being a little sarcastic.
    • @DrQz: +1 Data comes from the Devil, only models come from God. 
    • @DakarMoto: Great talk by @adrianco today quote of the day "i'm getting bored with #microservices, and I’m getting very interested in #teraservices.”
    • @adrianco: Early #teraservices enablers - Diablo Memory1 DIMMs, 2TB AWS X1 instances, in-memory databases and analytics...
    • @PatrickMcFadin: Average DRAM Contract Price Sank Nearly 10% in Oct Due to Ongoing Supply Glut. How long before 1T memory is min?
    • @leftside: "Netflix is a monitoring system that sometimes shows people movies." --@adrianco #RICON15
    • Linus: So I really see no reason for this kind of complete idiotic crap.
    • Jeremy Hsu: In theory, the new architecture could pack about 25 million physical qubits within an array that’s 150 micrometers by 150 µm. 
    • @alexkishinevsky: Just done AWS API Gateway HTTPS API, AWS Lambda function to process data straight into AWS Kinesis. So cool, so different than ever before.
    • @highway_62: @GreatDismal Food physics and candy scaling is a real thing. Expectations and ratios get blown. Mouth feel changes.
    • @randybias:  #5 you can’t get automation scaling without relative homogeneity (homologous) and that’s why the webscale people succeeded
    • Brian Biles: Behind it all: VMs won.  The only thing that kept this [Server Centric Storage is Killing Arrays] from happening a long time ago was OS proliferation on physical servers in the “Open Systems” years.  Simplifying storage for old OS’s required consolidative arrays with arbitrated-standard protocols.
    • @paulcbetts: This disk is writing at almost 1GB/sec and reading at ~2.2GB/sec. I remember in 2005 when I thought my HD reading at 60MB/sec was hot shit.
    • @merv: One of computing’s biggest challenges for architects and designers: scaling is not distributed uniformly in time or space.

  • To Zookeeper or to not Zookeeper? This is one of the questions debated on an energetic mechanical-sympathy thread. Some say Zookeeper is an unreliable and difficult to manage. Others say Zookeeper works great if carefully tended. If you need a gossip/discovery service there are alternatives: JGroups, Raft, Consul, Copycat.

  • Algorithms are as capable of tyranny as any other entity wielding power. Twins denied driver’s permit because DMV can’t tell them apart

  • Odd thought. What if Twitter took stock or options as payment for apps that want to use Twitter as a platform (not Fabric)? The current user caps would effectively be the free tier. If you want to go above that you can pay. Or you can exchange stock or options for service. This prevents the Yahoo problem of being King Makers, that is when Google becomes more valuable than you. It gives Twitter potential for growth. It aligns incentives because Twitter will be invested in the success of apps that use it. And it gives apps skin in the game. Although Twitter has to recognize the value of the stock they receive as revenue, they can offset that against previous losses.

  • One of the best stories ever told. Her Code Got Humans on the Moon—And Invented Software Itself: MARGARET HAMILTON WASN’T supposed to invent the modern concept of software and land men on the moon...But the Apollo space program came along. And Hamilton stayed in the lab to lead an epic feat of engineering that would help change the future of what was humanly—and digitally—possible. 

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

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Strategy: Avoid Lots of Little Files

I've been bitten by this one. It happens when you quite naturally use the file system as a quick and dirty database. A directory is a lot like a table and a file name looks a lot like a key. You can store many-to-one relationships via subdirectories. And the path to a file makes a handy quick lookup key. 

The problem is a file system isn't a database. That realization doesn't hit until you reach a threshold where there are actually lots of files. Everything works perfectly until then.

When the threshold is hit iterating a directory becomes very slow because most file system directory data structures are not optimized for the lots of small files case. And even opening a file becomes slow.

According to Steve Gibson on Security Now (@16:10) LastPass ran into this problem. LastPass stored every item in their vault in an individual file. This allowed standard file syncing technology to be used to update only the changed files. Updating a password changes just one file so only that file is synced.

Steve thinks this is a design mistake, but this approach makes perfect sense. It's simple and robust, which is good design given, what I assume, is the original reasonable expectation of relatively small vaults.

The problem is the file approach doesn't scale to larger vaults with thousands of files for thousands of web sites. Interestingly, decrypting files was not the bottleneck, the overhead of opening files became the problem. The slowdown was on the elaborate security checks the OS makes to validate if a process has the rights to open a file.

The new version of 1Password uses a UUID to shard items into one of 16 files based on the first digit of the UUID. Given good random number generation the files should grow more or less equally as items are added. Problem solved. Would this be your first solution when first building a product? Probably not.

Apologies to 1Password if this is not a correct characterization of their situation, but even if wrong, the lesson still remains.

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Paper: Coordination Avoidance in Distributed Databases By Peter Bailis

Peter Bailis has released the work of a lifetime, his dissertion is now available online: Coordination Avoidance in Distributed Databases.

The topic Peter is addressing is summed up nicely by his thesis statement: 

Many semantic requirements of database-backed applications can be efficiently enforced without coordination, thus improving scalability, latency, and availability.

I'd like to say I've read the entire dissertation and can offer cogent insightful analysis, but that would be a lie. Though I have watched several of Peter's videos (see Related Articles). He's doing important and interesting work, that as much University research has done, may change the future of what everyone is doing.

From the introduction:

The rise of Internet-scale geo-replicated services has led to upheaval in the design of modern data management systems. Given the availability, latency, and throughput penalties associated with classic mechanisms such as serializable transactions, a broad class of systems (e.g., “NoSQL”) has sought weaker alternatives that reduce the use of expensive coordination during system operation, often at the cost of application integrity. When can we safely forego the cost of this expensive coordination, and when must we pay the price?

In this thesis, we investigate the potential for coordination avoidance—the use of as little coordination as possible while ensuring application integrity—in several modern dataintensive domains. We demonstrate how to leverage the semantic requirements of applications in data serving, transaction processing, and web services to enable more efficient distributed algorithms and system designs. The resulting prototype systems demonstrate regular order-of-magnitude speedups compared to their traditional, coordinated counterparts on a variety of tasks, including referential integrity and index maintenance, transaction execution under common isolation models, and database constraint enforcement. A range of open source applications and systems exhibit similar results.

Related Articles 


How Shopify Scales to Handle Flash Sales from Kanye West and the Superbowl

This is a guest repost by Christophe Limpalair, creator of Scale Your Code.

In this article, we take a look at methods used by Shopify to make their platform resilient. Not only is this interesting to read about, but it can also be practical and help you with your own applications.

Shopify's Scaling Challenges

Shopify, an ecommerce solution, handles about 300 million unique visitors a month, but as you'll see, these 300M people don't show up in an evenly distributed fashion.

One of their biggest challenge is what they call "flash sales". These flash sales are when tremendously popular stores sell something at a specific time.

For example, Kanye West might sell new shoes. Combined with Kim Kardashian, they have a following of 50 million people on Twitter alone.

They also have customers who advertise on the Superbowl. Because of this, they have no idea how much traffic to expect. It could be 200,000 people showing up at 3:00 for a special sale that ends within a few hours.

How does Shopify scale to these sudden increases in traffic? Even if they can't scale that well for a particular sale, how can they make sure it doesn't affect other stores? This is what we will discuss in the next sections, after briefly explaining Shopify's architecture for context.

Shopify's Architecture

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Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For October 30th, 2015

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Movie goers Force Crashed websites with record ticket presales. Yoda commented: Do. Or do not. There is no try.
  • $51.5 billion: Apple quarterly revenue; 1,481: distance in light years of a potential Dyson Sphere; $470 billion: size of insurance industry data play; 31,257: computer related documents in a scanned library; $1.2B: dollars lost to business email scams; 46 billion: pixels in largest astronomical image; 27: seconds of distraction after doing anything interesting in a car; 10 billion: transistor SPARC M7 chip; 10K: cost to get a pound in to low earth orbit; $8.2 billion: Microsoft cloud revenue; 

  • Quotable Quotes:
    • @jasongorman: A $trillion industry has been built on the very lucky fact that Tim Berners-Lee never thought "how do I monetise this?"
    • Cade Metz: Sure, the app [WhatsApp] was simple. But it met a real need. And it could serve as a platform for building all sorts of other simple services in places where wireless bandwidth is limited but people are hungry for the sort of instant communication we take for granted here in the US.
    • Adrian Hanft: Brand experts insist that success comes from promoting your unique attributes, but in practice differentiation is less profitable than consolidation.
    • Jim Butcher: It’s a tradition. Were traditions rational, they’d be procedures.
    • Albert Einstein~ Sometimes I pretend I’m the Mayor of my kitchen and veto fish for dinner. ‘Too fishy’ is what I say!
    • @chumulu: “Any company big enough to have a research lab is too big to listen to it" -- Alan Kay
    • Robin Harris: So maybe AWS has all the growth it can handle right now and doesn’t want more visibility. AWS may be less scalable than we’d like to believe.
    • Michael Nielsen: Every finitely realizable physical system can be simulated efficiently and to an arbitrary degree of approximation by a universal model (quantum) computing machine operating by finite means.
    • Sundar Pichai~ there are now more Google mobile searches than desktop searches worldwide.
    • Joe Salvia~ The major advance in the science of construction over the last few decades has been the perfection of tracking and communication.
    • apy: In other words, as far as I can tell docker is replacing people learning how to use their package manager, not changing how software could or should have been deployed.
    • @joelgrus: "Data science is a god-like power." "Right, have you finished munging those CSVs yet?""No, they have time zone data in them!"
    • @swardley: "things are getting worse. Companies are increasingly financialised and spending less on basic research" @MazzucatoM 
    • Dan Rayburn: The cause of what Akamai is seeing is a result of Apple, Microsoft and Facebook moving a larger percentage of their traffic to their in-house delivery networks.
    • @littleidea: containers will not fix your broken architecture you are welcome
    • spawndog: I've typically found the best gameplay optimization comes from a greater amount of creative freedom like you mention. Lets not do it. Lets do it less frequently. Lets organize the data into something relative to usage pattern like spatial partitions.
    • @awealthofcs: The 1800s: I hope I survive my 3 month voyage to deliver a message to London Now: The streaming on this NFL game in London is a bit spotty
    • @ddwoods2: just having buffers ≠ resilience; resilience = the capacities for changing position/size/kind of buffers, before events eat those buffers
    • unoti: There's a dangerous, contagious illness that developers of every generation get that causes them to worry about architecture and getting "street cred" even more than they worry about solving business problems. I've fallen victim to this myself, because street cred is important to me. But it's a trap.
    • @kelseyhightower: Kubernetes is getting some awesome new features: Auto scaling pods, Jobs API (batch), and a new deployment API for serve side app rollouts.

  • Great story on Optimizing League of Legends. The process: Identification: profile the application and identify the worst performing parts; Comprehension: understand what the code is trying to achieve and why it is slow; Iteration: change the code based on step 2 and then re-profile. Repeat until fast enough. Result: memory savings of 750kb and a function that ran one to two milliseconds faster. 

  • Fantastic article on Medium's architecture: 25 million uniques a month;  service-oriented architecture, running about a dozen production services; GitHub; Amazon’s Virtual Private Cloud; Ansible; mostly Node with some Go; CloudFlare, Fastly, CloudFront with interesting traffic allocations; Nginx and HAProxy; Datadog, PagerDuty, Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana; DynamoDB, Redis, Aurora, Neo4J; Protocol Buffers used as contract between layers; and much more.

  • Are notifications the new Web X.0? Notification: the push and the pull: Right now we are witnessing another round of unbundling as the notification screen becomes the primary interface for mobile computing.

  • Algorithm hacking 101. Uber Surge Price? Research Says Walk A Few Blocks, Wait A Few Minutes.

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

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Five Lessons from Ten Years of IT Failures

IEEE Spectrum has a wonderful article series on Lessons From a Decade of IT Failures. It’s not your typical series in that there are very cool interactive graphs and charts based on data collected from past project failures. They are really fun to play with and I can only imagine how much work it took to put them together.

The overall takeaway of the series is:

Even given the limitations of the data, the lessons we draw from them indicate that IT project failures and operational issues are occurring more regularly and with bigger consequences. This isn’t surprising as IT in all its various forms now permeates every aspect of global society. It is easy to forget that Facebook launched in 2004, YouTube in 2005, Apple’s iPhone in 2007, or that there has been three new versions of Microsoft Windows released since 2005. IT systems are definitely getting more complex and larger (in terms of data captured, stored and manipulated), which means not only are they increasing difficult and costly to develop, but they’re also harder to maintain.

Here are the specific lessons:

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Sponsored Post: Digit, iStreamPlanet, Instrumental, Redis Labs,, SignalFx, InMemory.Net, VividCortex, MemSQL, Scalyr, AiScaler, AppDynamics, ManageEngine, Site24x7

Who's Hiring?

  • Digit Game Studios, Irish’s largest game development studio, is looking for game server engineers to work on existing and new mobile 3D MMO games. Our most recent project in development is based on an iconic AAA-IP and therefore we expect very high DAU & CCU numbers. If you are passionate about games and if you are experienced in creating low-latency architectures and/or highly scalable but consistent solutions then talk to us and apply here.

  • As a Networking & Systems Software Engineer at iStreamPlanet you’ll be driving the design and implementation of a high-throughput video distribution system. Our cloud-based approach to video streaming requires terabytes of high-definition video routed throughout the world. You will work in a highly-collaborative, agile environment that thrives on success and eats big challenges for lunch. Please apply here.

  • As a Scalable Storage Software Engineer at iStreamPlanet you’ll be driving the design and implementation of numerous storage systems including software services, analytics and video archival. Our cloud-based approach to world-wide video streaming requires performant, scalable, and reliable storage and processing of data. You will work on small, collaborative teams to solve big problems, where you can see the impact of your work on the business. Please apply here.

  • At Scalyr, we're analyzing multi-gigabyte server logs in a fraction of a second. That requires serious innovation in every part of the technology stack, from frontend to backend. Help us push the envelope on low-latency browser applications, high-speed data processing, and reliable distributed systems. Help extract meaningful data from live servers and present it to users in meaningful ways. At Scalyr, you’ll learn new things, and invent a few of your own. Learn more and apply.

  • UI EngineerAppDynamics, founded in 2008 and lead by proven innovators, is looking for a passionate UI Engineer to design, architect, and develop our their user interface using the latest web and mobile technologies. Make the impossible possible and the hard easy. Apply here.

  • Software Engineer - Infrastructure & Big DataAppDynamics, leader in next generation solutions for managing modern, distributed, and extremely complex applications residing in both the cloud and the data center, is looking for a Software Engineers (All-Levels) to design and develop scalable software written in Java and MySQL for backend component of software that manages application architectures. Apply here.

Fun and Informative Events

  • Your event could be here. How cool is that?

Cool Products and Services

  • Instrumental is a hosted real-time application monitoring platform. In the words of one of our customers: "Instrumental is the first place we look when an issue occurs. Graphite was always the last place we looked." - Dan M

  • Real-time correlation across your logs, metrics and events. just released its operations data hub into beta and we are already streaming in billions of log, metric and event data points each day. Using our streaming analytics platform, you can get real-time monitoring of your application performance, deep troubleshooting, and even product analytics. We allow you to easily aggregate logs and metrics by micro-service, calculate percentiles and moving window averages, forecast anomalies, and create interactive views for your whole organization. Try it for free, at any scale.

  • Turn chaotic logs and metrics into actionable data. Scalyr replaces all your tools for monitoring and analyzing logs and system metrics. Imagine being able to pinpoint and resolve operations issues without juggling multiple tools and tabs. Get visibility into your production systems: log aggregation, server metrics, monitoring, intelligent alerting, dashboards, and more. Trusted by companies like Codecademy and InsideSales. Learn more and get started with an easy 2-minute setup. Or see how Scalyr is different if you're looking for a Splunk alternative or Sumo Logic alternative.

  • SignalFx: just launched an advanced monitoring platform for modern applications that's already processing 10s of billions of data points per day. SignalFx lets you create custom analytics pipelines on metrics data collected from thousands or more sources to create meaningful aggregations--such as percentiles, moving averages and growth rates--within seconds of receiving data. Start a free 30-day trial!

  • InMemory.Net provides a Dot Net native in memory database for analysing large amounts of data. It runs natively on .Net, and provides a native .Net, COM & ODBC apis for integration. It also has an easy to use language for importing data, and supports standard SQL for querying data. http://InMemory.Net

  • VividCortex goes beyond monitoring and measures the system's work on your servers, providing unparalleled insight and query-level analysis. This unique approach ultimately enables your team to work more effectively, ship more often, and delight more customers.

  • MemSQL provides a distributed in-memory database for high value data. It's designed to handle extreme data ingest and store the data for real-time, streaming and historical analysis using SQL. MemSQL also cost effectively supports both application and ad-hoc queries concurrently across all data. Start a free 30 day trial here:

  • aiScaler, aiProtect, aiMobile Application Delivery Controller with integrated Dynamic Site Acceleration, Denial of Service Protection and Mobile Content Management. Also available on Amazon Web Services. Free instant trial, 2 hours of FREE deployment support, no sign-up required.

  • ManageEngine Applications Manager : Monitor physical, virtual and Cloud Applications.

  • : Monitor End User Experience from a global monitoring network.

If any of these items interest you there's a full description of each sponsor below. Please click to read more...

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What ideas in IT must die?

Are there ideas in IT that must die for progress to be made?

Max Planck wryly observed that scientific progress is often less meritocracy and more Lord of the Flies:

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.

Playing off this insight is a thought provoking book collection of responses to a question posed on the Edge: This Idea Must Die: Scientific Theories That Are Blocking Progress. From the book blurb some of the ideas that should transition into the postmortem are: Jared Diamond explores the diverse ways that new ideas emerge; Nassim Nicholas Taleb takes down the standard deviation; Richard Thaler and novelist Ian McEwan reveal the usefulness of "bad" ideas; Steven Pinker dismantles the working theory of human behavior.

Let’s get edgy: Are there ideas that should die in IT?

What ideas do you think should pass into the great version control system called history? What ideas if garbage collected would allow us to transmigrate into a bright shiny new future? Be as deep and bizarre as you want. This is the time for it.

I have two: Winner Takes All and The Homogeneity Principle.

Winner Takes All

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Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For October 23rd, 2015

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

The amazing story of Voyager's walkabout and the three body problem.

If you like Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability then please consider supporting me on Patreon.
  • $18 billion: wasted on US Army Future Combat system; 70%: Americans who support an Internet sales tax;  $1.3 billion: wasted on an interoperable health record system; trillions: NSA breaking Web and VPN connections; 615: human data teams beat by a computer; $900,000: cost of apps on your smartphone 30 years ago.

  • Quotable Quotes:
    • @PatrickMcFadin: 'Sup 10x coder. Grace Hopper invented the compiler and has a US Navy destroyer named after her. Just how badass are you again?
    • @benwerd: I love Marty McFly too, but more importantly, the first transatlantic voice transmission was sent 100 years ago today. What a century.
    • Martin Goodwell: The nearly two-billion requests that Netflix receives each day result in roughly 20 billion internal API calls.
    • sigma914: It's great to see people implementing distributed services using a vertically scalable technology stack again. The past ~decade has seen a lot of "We can scale sideways so constant overheads are irrelevant! We'll just use Java and add more machines!" which, in real life, seems to leave a lot of performance on the table.
    • Eric Schmidt: The way you build great products is small teams with strong leaders who make tradeoffs and work all night to build a product that just barely works.
    • @boulderDanH: We adopted stateful services early on @VictorOps and I always worried we were crazy. Maybe not
    • @jamesallworth: "The pressure for conformity isn’t limited to car design, it affects *everything*."
    • Eric Schmidt: Hindsight is always that you make the important decisions more quickly.
    • @fromroots: Facebook bought Instagram and WhatsApp to block Chinese competitors like Tencent and Alibaba from scaling globally quickly
    • Eric Schmidt: You’ve got to have products that can scale. What’s new is that once you have that product, you can scale very quickly. Look at Uber.
    • David Ehrenberg: So, before scaling, build your plan, get your systems in place, control your cash burn, create meaningful milestones and plan for cash-flow positive. That’s the foundation to successfully scale.
    • Francis Fukuyama: Hence patrimonialism has evolved into what is called “neopatrimonialism,” in which political leaders adopt the outward forms of modern states—with bureaucracies, legal systems, elections, and the like—and yet in reality rule for private gain. 
    • @sandromancuso: I hate all these bloody Java frameworks. Why devs keep using them? No, you won’t die if you write some code yourself. 
    • Eric Schmidt: Their point was that the industry overvalues experience, and undervalues strategic and tactical flexibility.
    • @AWSUserGroupUK: Daily load fluctuates by two orders of magnitude - auto scaling architecture is essential #BMW #reinvent
    • @tpechacek: “The greatest shortcoming of the human race,” he said, “is our inability to understand the exponential function”
    • @mjpt777: +1000 "Programming with Java concurrency is like working with the inlaws. You never know will happen." - @venkat_s #jokerconf
    • Eric Schmidt: The teams are far larger than they should be. It’s a failure of architecture — the programmers don’t have the right libraries. I hope that machine learning will fix that problem.
    • Marcus Zetterquist: Start using writing your C++, Java and Javascript code using pure functions and immutability NOW. It gets super powers
    • Eric Schmidt: Companies like ours have so much cash that the main limit is opportunities to deploy it.
    • @berkson0: Loving and hating the Scaling keynote at #AWS #reinvent. All my painfully earned infrastructure experience rendered superfluous <sigh>
    • Eric Schmidt: The day we turned on the auctions, revenue tripled.
    • James S.A. Corey: Awareness is a function of the brain just like vision or motor control or language. It isn’t exempt from being broken
    • @mitchellh: Sure, but scaling linearly from millions to trillions of requests won’t scale financially. I’m talking about financial efficiency
    • Anil Ananthaswamy: It turns out that in order to anchor the self to the body, the brain has to integrate signals from within the body with external sensations, and with sensations of position and balance. When something goes wrong with brain regions that integrate all these signals, the results are even more dramatic than out-of-body experiences
    • @alemacgo: “The whole point of science is to penetrate the fog of human senses, including common sense.”
    • @themadstone: Why is life special? Bc a billionth of a billionth of a fraction of all matter in the universe is living matter.

  • Oh how the world has changed. Here's an email from 1996: Alta Vista is a very large project, requiring the cooperation of at least 5 servers, configured for searching huge indices and handling a huge Internet traffic load. The initial hardware configuration for Alta Vista is as follows... 

  • AWS has helped change the VC industry. AWS and Venture Capital. Getting a new company off the ground takes less than a few hundred thousand dollars these days. With AWS all you have are the variable costs of what you use. Gone are the days of needing to buy a bunch of servers and the people to maintain them. Old news. More interesting is because less money is now needed to start a venture more people can help ventures get started. VC incentives are aligned with companies that need to grow quickly, like an Uber. Given that a VC only needs one in ten investments or so to be a huge hit, it's best for a VC if those other nine die as fast as possible to minimize costs. This may not align with your interests if you would like grow more organically. It's unprofitable for VCs to play in the seed funding realm. VCs used to win because they had access to capital and superior information, both of which have been commoditized at today's lower funding levels and higher availability of expertise. So if you want get to heaven, you may need an Angel.

  • Here's the IPv6 carrot. Accessing Facebook can be 10-15 percent faster over IPv6. IPv6: It's time to get on board.

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

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