Scale to China

Hello all, does anyone have experience in scaling a european website to china? The main problem in china is the internet connectivity to websites outside china, that means latency and packetloss (and perhaps filtering) make things difficult. The options I see are: 1. Host you application in china, but where? I haven't got a answer from any chinese ISP I contacted. On the other hand I don't really want to host in china. 2. Build your own CDN. Wikipedia shows how it goes. Get a bunch of machines (but where? see point 1) put squid on them, implement intelligent cache invalidation and you're set. But where can I get machines in china? Where do I need them in china? There are soe big isps with limited peering capability, so I'd need servers in every network. 3. Get professional CDN services. Akamai, ChinaCache, CDNetworks, etc etc.. They all provide services in china. The problem is: they are all very expensive. 4. Amazon EC2/S3 ? Is it worth thinking about this way? I am not sure, because they only have US and Ireland based datacenters. So we are stuck to the connectivity problem.. My favourite way: Rent a bunch of linux servers in 4-5 big cities in china in different networks and build my own CDN. What do you think? Regards Bjoern

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Why not Cache from Intersystems?

I have some experience with a very large OLTP system that is 7+ TB in size and performs very well for 30K+ concurrent users. It is built using Intersystems Cache based on the very old but very scalable MUMPS platform. Why don't I see more discussions about archiectures such as these in this forum? I am curious why this platform scales so much better then the typical RDBMS.

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n-phase commit for FS writes, reads stay local

I am trying to find a Linux FS that will allow me to replicate all writes synchronously to n nodes in a web server cluster, while keeping all reads local. It should not require specialized hardware.

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what is j2ee stack

I see everyone talk about lamp stack is less than j2ee stack .i m newbie can anyone plz explain what is j2ee stack

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Product: SmartFrog a Distributed Configuration and Deployment Framework

From Wikipedia: SmartFrog is an open-source software framework, written in Java, that manages the configuration, deployment and coordination of a software system broken into components. These components may be distributed across several network hosts. The configuration of components is described using a domain-specific language, whose syntax resembles that of Java. It is a prototype-based object-oriented language, and may thus be compared to Self. The framework is used internally in a variety of HP products. Also, it is being used by HP Labs partners like CERN.

Related Articles

  • Distributed Testing with SmartFrog
  • Puppet the Automated Administration System

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  • Monday

    Tailrank Architecture - Learn How to Track Memes Across the Entire Blogosphere

    Ever feel like the blogosphere is 500 million channels with nothing on? Tailrank finds the internet's hottest channels by indexing over 24M weblogs and feeds per hour. That's 52TB of raw blog content (no, not sewage) a month and requires continuously processing 160Mbits of IO. How do they do that? This is an email interview with Kevin Burton, founder and CEO of Kevin was kind enough to take the time to explain how they scale to index the entire blogosphere.


  • Tailrank - We track the hottest news in the blogosphere!
  • Spinn3r - A blog spider you can specialize with your own behavior instead of creating your own.
  • Kevin Burton's Blog - his blog is an indexing mix of politics and technical talk. Both are always interesting.


  • MySQL
  • Java
  • Linux (Debian)
  • Apache
  • Squid
  • PowerDNS
  • DAS storage.
  • Federated database.
  • ServerBeach hosting.
  • Job scheduling system for work distribution.


  • What is your system is for? Tailrank originally a memetracker to track the hottest news being discussed within the blogosphere. We started having a lot of requests to license our crawler and we shipped that in the form of Spinn3r about 8 months ago. Spinn3r is self contained crawler for companies that want to index the full blogosphere and consumer generated media. Tailrank is still a very important product alongside Spinn3r and we're working on Tailrank 3.0 which should be available in the future. No ETA at the moment but it's actively being worked on.
  • What particular design/architecture/implementation challenges does your system have? The biggest challenge we have is the sheer amount of data we have to process and keeping that data consistent within a distributed system. For example, we process 52TB of content per month. this has to be indexed in a highly available storage architecture so the normal distributed database problems arise.
  • What did you do to meet these challenges? We've spent a lot of time in building out a distributed system that can scale and handle failure. For example, we've built a tool called Task/Queue that is analogous to Google's MapReduce. It has a centralized queue server which hands out units of work to robots which make requests. It works VERY well for crawlers in that slower machines just fetch work at a slower rate while more modern machines (or better tuned machines) request work at a higher rate. This ends up easily solving one of the main distributed computing fallacies that the network is homogeneous. Task/Queue is generic enough that we could actually use it to implement MapReduce on top of the system. We'll probably open source it at some point. Right now it has too many tentacles wrapped into other parts of our system.
  • How big is your system? We index 24M weblogs and feeds per hour and process content at about 160-200Mbps. At the raw level we're writing to our disks at about 10-15MBps continuously.
  • How many documents, do you serve? How many images? How much data? Right now the database is about 500G. We're expecting it to grow well beyond this in 2008 as we expand our product offering.
  • What is your rate of growth? It's mostly a function of customer feature requests. If our customers want more data we sell it to them. In 2008 we're planning on expanding our cluster to index larger portions of the web and consumer generated media.
  • What is the architecture of your system? We use Java, MySQL and Linux for our cluster. Java is a great language for writing crawlers. The library support is pretty solid (though it seems like Java 7 is going to be killer when they add closures). We use MySQL with InnoDB. We're mostly happy with it though it seems I end up spending about 20% of my time fixing MySQL bugs and limitations. Of course nothing is perfect. MySQL for example was really designed to be used on single core systems. The MySQL 5.1 release goes a bit farther to fix multi-core scalability locks. I recently blogged about how these the new multi-core machines should really be considered N machines instead of one logical unit: Distributed Computing Fallacy #9.
  • How is your system architected to scale? We use a federated database system so that we can split the write load as we see more IO. We've released a lot of our code as Open Source a lot of our infrastructure and this will probably be released as Open Source as well. We've already opened up a lot of our infrastructure code:
  • - load balancing JDBC driver for use with DB connection pools.
  • - Java RSS/Atom parser designed to elegantly support all versions of RSS
  • - Java (and UNIX) equivalent of Windows' perfmon
  • - Client bindings to access the Spinn3r web service
  • - Clone a MySQL installation and setup replication.
  • - Logger facade that supports printf style message format for both performance and ease of use.
  • How many servers do you have? About 15 machines so far. We've spent a lot of time tuning our infrastructure so it's pretty efficient. That said, building a scalable crawler is not an easy task so it does take a lot of hardware. We're going to be expanding FAR past this in 2008 and will probably hit about 2-3 racks of machines (~120 boxes).
  • What operating systems do you use? Linux via Debian Etch on 64 bit Opterons. I'm a big Debian fan. I don't know why more hardware vendors don't support Debian. Debian is the big secret in the valley that no one talks about. Most of the big web 2.0 shops like Technorati, Digg, etc use Debian.
  • Which web server do you use? Apache 2.0. Lighttpd is looking interesting as well.
  • Which reverse proxy do you use? About 95% of the pages of Tailrank are served from Squid.
  • How is your system deployed in data centers? We use ServerBeach for hosting. It's a great model for small to medium sized startups. They rack the boxes, maintain inventory, handle network, etc. We just buy new machines and pay a flat markup. I wish Dell, SUN, HP would sell directly to clients in this manner. One right now. We're looking to expand into two for redundancy.
  • What is your storage strategy? Directly attached storage. We buy two SATA drives per box and set them up in RAID 0. We use the redundant array of inexpensive databases solution so if an individual machine fails there's another copy of the data on another box. Cheap SATA disks rule for what we do. They're cheap, commodity, and fast.
  • Do you have a standard API to your website? Tailrank has RSS feeds for every page. The Spinn3r service is itself an API and we have extensive documentation on the protocol. It's also free to use for researchers so if any of your readers are pursuing a Ph.D and generally doing research work and needs access to blog data we'd love to help them out. We already have the Ph.D students at the University of Washington and University of Maryland (my Alma Matter) using Spinn3r.
  • Which DNS service do you use? PowerDNS. It's a great product. We only use the recursor daemon but it's FAST. It uses async IO though so it doesn't really scale across processors on multicore boxes. Apparenty there's a hack to get it to run across cores but it isn't very reliable. AAA caching might be broken though. I still need to look into this.
  • Who do you admire? Donald Knuth is the man!
  • How are you thinking of changing your architecture in the future? We're still working on finishing up a fully sharded database. MySQL fault tolerance and autopromotion is also an issue.

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  • Sunday

    Reverse Proxy

    Hi, I saw an year ago that Netapp sold netcache to blu-coat, my site is a heavy NetCache user and we cached 83% of our site. We tested with Blue-coat and F5 WA and we are not getting same performce as NetCache. Any of you guys have the same issue? or somebody knows another product can handle much traffic? Thanks Rodrigo

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    Can How Bees Solve their Load Balancing Problems Help Build More Scalable Websites?

    Bees have a similar problem to website servers: how to do a lot of work with limited resources in an ever changing environment. Usually lessons from biology are hard to apply to computer problems. Nature throws hardware at problems. Billions and billions of cells cooperate at different levels of organizations to find food, fight lions, and make sure your DNA is passed on. Nature's software is "simple," but her hardware rocks. We do the opposite. For us hardware is in short supply so we use limited hardware and leverage "smart" software to work around our inability to throw hardware at problems. But we might be able to borrow some load balancing techniques from bees. What do bees do that we can learn from? Bees do a dance to indicate the quality and location of a nectar source. When a bee finds a better source they do a better dance and resources shift to the new location. This approach may seem inefficient, but it turns out to be "optimal for the unpredictable nectar world." Craig Tovey and Sunil Nakrani are trying to apply these lessons to more efficiently allocate work to servers: Tovey and Nakrani set to work translating the bee strategy for these idle Internet servers. They developed a virtual “dance floor” for a network of servers. When one server receives a user request for a certain Web site, an internal advertisement (standing in a little less colorfully for the dance) is placed on the dance floor to attract any available servers. The ad’s duration depends on the demand on the site and how much revenue its users may generate. The longer an ad remains on the dance floor, the more power available servers devote to serving the Web site requests advertised. Sounds like an open source project that could get a lot of good buzz. You can imagine lots of cool logos and sweet project names. Maybe it could be sponsored by the Honey council?

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    Product: lbpool - Load Balancing JDBC Pool

    From the website: The lbpool project provides a load balancing JDBC driver for use with DB connection pools. It wraps a normal JDBC driver providing reconnect semantics in the event of additional hardware availability, partial system failure, or uneven load distribution. It also evenly distributes all new connections among slave DB servers in a given pool. Each time connect() is called it will attempt to use the best server with the least system load. The biggest scalability issue with large applications that are mostly READ bound is the number of transactions per second that the disks in your cluster can handle. You can generally solve this in two ways. 1. Buy bigger and faster disks with expensive RAID controllers. 2. Buy CHEAP hardware on CHEAP disks but lots of machines. We prefer the cheap hardware approach and lbpool allows you to do this. Even if you *did* manage to use cheap hardware most load balancing hardware is expensive, requires a redundant balancer (if it were to fail), and seldom has native support for MySQL. The lbpool driver addresses all these needs. The original solution was designed for use within MySQL replication clusters. This generally involves a master server handling all writes with a series of slaves which handle all reads. In this situation we could have hundreds of slaves and lbpool would load balance queries among the boxes. If you need more read performance just buy more boxes. If any of them fail it won't hurt your application because lbpool will simply block for a few seconds and move your queries over to a new production server. In this post Kevin Burton of Spinn3r mentions they've been using this product to good effect for handling MySQL replication faults, balancing, and crashed servers.

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    Mogulus Doesn't Own a Single Server and has $1.2 million in funding, 15,000 People Creating Channels

    Scoble the Ubiquitous has a fascinating post on how Mogulus, a live video channel startup, uses S3/EC2 and doesn't own a single server. The trends that have been happening for a while now are going mainstream. To do great things you no longer need to start by creating a huge war chest. You can forage off the land, like any good mobile, light weight fighting unit. For a strategy hit he mentions the same needed change in perspective as Beau Lebens talked about when making FeedBlendr: One tip he gave us is that when using Amazon’s services you have to design your systems with the assumption that they will never be up and running. What he means by that is services are “volatile” and can go up and down without notice. So, he’s designed his systems to survive that. He told me that it meant his engineering teams had to be quite disciplined in designing their architecture.

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